According to Wikipedia, Hydroponics is the subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil.
With the fast growing population and the excessive high rise construction, it has become difficult to find areas with good quality of soil to grow plants. The over cropping and contamination of the soil due to chemicals is another reason why alternative methods are needed to maintain the green cover. Use of Hydroponics is one such solution.
In Hydroponics , the plant receives all the nourishment it needs from external sources. The most common of the Hydroponic systems use water-soluble N-P-K hydroponic fertilizer (Nitrogen-Phosphorous-Potassium) to cover up for the ingredients present in the soil and water provides the Oxygen and Hydrogen. Thus, the plant is able to grow without any need of soil.
This method is useful for people living in apartment-like dwelling or in areas which do not have enough soil cover.For example, I am located in an apartment on the top floor and I do not have access to a garden area. So I came up with the idea of installing a hydroponic garden in the balcony of my apartment. It is easy to setup and I believe is cheaper than other conventional planting techniques. Also , it is less messy as no soil is involved, hence no worries when it comes to watering the plants.
Later, I will hook up my hydroponic garden to a Raspberry Pi based system that will keep track of the water and nourishment levels.